|London County Council|
1889 - 1892 - 1895 - 1898 - 1901 - 1904 - 1907 - 1910 - 1913 - 1919 - 1922 - 1925 - 1928 - 1931 - 1934 - 1937 - 1946 - 1949 - 1952 - 1955 - 1958 - 1961
Metropolitan Board of Works
London School Board
Greater London Council
Inner London Education Authority
The London County Council (LCC) was the principal local government body for the County of London, throughout its 1889–1965 existence, and the first London-wide general municipal authority to be directly elected. It covered the area today known as Inner London and was replaced by the Greater London Council. The LCC was the largest, most significant and ambitious municipal authority of its day.
- 1 History
- 2 Powers and duties
- 3 Headquarters
- 4 Politics
- 5 List of Boroughs created 1900
- 6 References
- 7 Preceded by
- 8 Succeeded by
- 9 See also
- 10 External Links
- 11 Bibliography
By the 19th century the City of London Corporation covered only a small fraction of metropolitan London. From 1855 the Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) had certain powers across the metropolis, but it was appointed rather than elected. Many powers remained in the hands of traditional bodies such as parishes and the counties of Middlesex, Surrey and Kent. The creation of the LCC in 1889, as part of the Local Government Act 1888, was forced by a succession of scandals involving the MBW, and was also prompted by a general desire to create a competent government for the city, capable of strategising and delivering services effectively. While the Conservative government of the day would have preferred not to create a single body covering the whole of London, their electoral pact with Liberal Unionists led them to this policy. Shortly after its creation a Royal Commission on the Amalgamation of the City and County of London considered the means for amalgamation with the City of London. Although this was not achieved, it led to the creation of 28 metropolitan boroughs as lower tier authorities to replace the various local vestries and boards in 1900; they assumed some powers of the LCC and shared others.
Powers and duties
The LCC inherited the powers of its predecessor the MBW, but also had wider authority over matters such as education, city planning and council housing. It took over the functions of the London School Board in 1903, and Dr C W Kimmins was appointed chief inspector of the education department in 1904.
From 1899 the Council progressively acquired and operated the tramways in the county, which it electrified from 1903. By 1933, when the LCC Tramways were taken over by the London Passenger Transport Board, it was the largest tram operator in the United Kingdom, with more than 167 miles of route and over 1,700 tramcars.
By 1939 the council had the following powers and duties:
- Public Assistance
- Health Services, Housing and Sanitation
- Regulation and Licensing
- Protective Services
- Education and Museums
The LCC initially used the Spring Gardens headquarters inherited from the Metropolitan Board of Works. The building had been designed by Frederick Marrable, the MBW's supeintending architect, and dated from 1860. Opinions on the merits of the building varied: the Survey of London described it as "well balanced" while the architectural correspondent of The Times was less enthusiastic. He summarised the building as "...of the Palladian type of four storeys with two orders, Ionic Order above and Corinthian Order below as if its designer had looked rather hastily at the banqueting house of Inigo Jones." The most impressive feature was the curving or elliptical spiral staircase leading to the principal floor. The original board room was too small to accommodate meetings of the new council, and it was soon replaced by a horseshoe-shaped council chamber.
The search for a new site
By 1893 it was clear that the Spring Gardens building was too small for the increased work of the LCC. Seven additional buildings within a quarter of a mile of the County Hall had been acquired, and it was estimated that they would need to take over an average of two more houses annually. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Sir William Vernon Harcourt offered the council a site at Parliament Street, Westminster for three quarters of a million pounds. Another site subsequently became available between The Strand and The Embankment, when the Official Receiver took over the partially completed premises of the failed Liberator Building Society - which had been initiated by Jabez Balfour  The council's Establishment Committee recommended the purchase of the Parliament Street lot, as it would be a prominent site opposite the Palace of Westminster and next to the principal government offices. Following a debate of the whole council, the committee's recommendation was rejected on financial grounds and as it was felt that the headquarters should not be in the privileged West End.
The matter remained unresolved, and in 1900 a special committee was formed by the council to seek out a suitable site. In July 1902 they presented their report, recommending a 3.35 acre site in the Adelphi. Entry roads to the proposed county hall would be made from The Strand and The Embankment. The council rejected the recommendations in October 1902, and a suggestion was made that the committee seek a site south of the Thames, adjacent to Westminster Bridge.
County Hall, Lambeth
In April 1905 the council finally agreed to seek powers to buy three adjoining plots of land on the eastern side of Westminster Bridge as a site for a single headquarters. The debate in the council chamber was somewhat heated with one councillor objecting to the purchase as it was "on the wrong side of the river.. in a very squalid neighbourhood... and quite unworthy of the dignity of a body like the council". Leading member of the council, John Burns countered that it "would brighten up a dull place, sweeten a sour spot and for the first time bring the south of London into a dignified and beautiful frontage on the River Thames."
The necessary powers were obtained under the London County Council (Money) Act 1906, and a competition to design the new building was organised.
There were approximately 100 entries, and the winner was the twenty-nine year old Ralph Knott. Construction began in 1911, and the first section was opened in 1922, with the original building completed in 1933. Extensions continued to be made throughout the council's existence.
Elections to the London County Council
The county was divided into electoral divisions, which had the same boundaries as the parliamentary constituencies. Initially, each division returned two councillors, with the exception of the City of London, which returned four. Under the Representation of the People Act 1948 this was altered, with three councillors being returned for each division. Elections of all councillors were held every three years, although they were cancelled during the First World War and Second World Wars.
In addition to the elected councillors the council also comprised one county alderman for every six councillors. Aldermen were elected by halves by the council for six-year terms at the first meeting following the election.
Initially, it had been hoped by many that elections to the LCC would be conducted on a non-partisan basis, but in the council two political groups formed. The majority group in 1889 was the Progressives, who were unofficially allied with the Liberal Party in national politics. Those who allied with the Conservative Party formed the Moderate group. In 1906, the Moderates became known as the Municipal Reform Party.
The LCC was elected every three years. The Progressives were in control continuously from 1889 until 1907, when they lost power to the Municipal Reformers. Municipal Reform control lasted until 1934 when Labour won power, which they kept until the LCC was abolished.
The following is a summary of the council composition following each election. The figures shown are the number of councillors plus aldermen. For instance 13 + 2 indicates 13 councillors and 2 aldermen.
|1961||Labour||42 + 7||84 +14||–||–|
|1958||Labour||25 + 7||101 + 14||–||–|
|1955||Labour||52 + 8||74 + 13||–||–|
|1952||Labour||37 + 6||92 + 15||–||–|
|1949||Labour||64 + 5||64 + 16||1 + 0||–|
|1946||Labour||30 + 6||90 + 14||2 + 0||2 + 0|
|1937||Labour||49 + 8||75 + 12||–||–|
|1934||Labour||55 + 9||69 + 11||–||–|
|1931||Municipal Reform||83 + 13||35 + 6||6 + 0||0 + 1|
|1928||Municipal Reform||77 + 12||42 + 6||5 + 1||0 + 1|
|1925||Municipal Reform||83 + 13||35 + 6||6 + 0||–|
|1922||Municipal Reform||82 + 12||16 + 3||26 + 5||–|
|1919||Municipal Reform||68 + 12||15 + 2||40 + 6||1 + 0|
|1913||Municipal Reform||67 + 15||2 + 0||49 + 4||–|
|1910||Municipal Reform||60 + 17||3 + 0||55 + 2||–|
|1907||Municipal Reform||79 + 11||1 + 0||37 + 8||1 + 0|
|1904||Progressive||35 + 6||–||82 + 13||1 + 0|
|1901||Progressive||32 + 6||0 + 1||86 + 12||–|
|1898||Progressive||48 + 8||0 + 1||70 + 10||–|
|1895||Progressive||59 + 7||–||59 + 12||–|
|1892||Progressive||35 + 2||–||83 + 17||–|
|1889||Progressive||46 + 1||–||72 + 18||–|
Leaders of the London County Council
The post of Leader was only officially recognised in 1933. This table gives the Leaders of the majority parties on the council before this time, although in the first term this had little relevance in terms of the leadership of the Council.
- Sir Thomas Farrer (21 March 1889 – 27 March 1890)
- James Stuart (27 March 1890 – 9 March 1892)
- Charles Harrison (9 March 1892 – 10 March 1898)
- Thomas McKinnon Wood (10 March 1898 – 8 March 1907)
- Richard Robinson (8 March 1907 – 11 March 1908)
- Hon. William Wellesley Peel (11 March 1908 – 8 March 1910)
- William Hayes Fisher (8 March 1910 – 19 December 1911)
- Cyril Jackson (19 December 1911 – 16 March 1915)
- Ronald Collet Norman (16 March 1915 – 1 March 1918)
- George Hopwood Hume (knighted 1924) (1 March 1918 – 11 March 1925)
- Sir William Ray (11 March 1925 – 9 March 1934)
- Herbert Morrison (9 March 1934 – 27 May 1940)
- Lord Latham (27 May 1940 – 29 July 1947)
- Sir Isaac Hayward (29 July 1947 – 31 March 1965)
Chairmen of the London County Council
Chairman and vice chairman
The county council was required by statute to appoint a chairman and a vice chairman at its annual meeting. Both of these positions were generally filled by members of the majority party. The chairman chaired meetings of the council, and was the county's civic leader, filling a similar role to the mayor of a borough or city. The vice chairman performed these functions in his absence. The first chairman was the Earl of Rosebery, and the last chairman was Arthur Wicks.
The chairmanship was a prestigious office, second only to that of Lord Lieutenant of the County of London. The incumbent chairmen were honoured with knighthoods on the occasions of the coronations of Edward VII of the United Kingdom and Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, and the laying of the foundation stone of County Hall. As part of the celebrations of the Silver Jubilee of George V of the United Kingdom in 1935 it was announced that the chairman would in future be entitled to use the style "right honourable", an honour already enjoyed by the Lord Mayor of London.
The council's standing orders also provided for the post of deputy chairman. Until 1895 the holder of this office was in charge of the organisation of the council's activities, and was paid a salary. This was seen as a conflict of interest by the Royal Commission on the Amalgamation of the City and County of London when they reported in 1894, and in 1895 a county clerk was added to the council staff to perform these duties.  The deputy chairmanship then became purely ceremonial, and was filled by nominees of the opposition party on the council.
List of Boroughs created 1900
List of Metropolitan Boroughs
There was much discussion and negotiation 1899 over the way in which the vestries would be amalgamated, details of which can be found in The Times.
- City of London (not a metropolitan borough)
- Metropolitan Borough of Battersea
- Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey
- Metropolitan Borough of Bethnal Green
- Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell
- Metropolitan Borough of Chelsea
- Metropolitan Borough of Deptford
- Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury
- Metropolitan Borough of Fulham
- Metropolitan Borough of Greenwich
- Metropolitan Borough of Hackney
- Metropolitan Borough of Hammersmith
- Metropolitan Borough of Hampstead
- Metropolitan Borough of Holborn
- Metropolitan Borough of Islington
- Metropolitan Borough of Kensington
- Metropolitan Borough of Lambeth
- Metropolitan Borough of Lewisham
- Metropolitan Borough of Paddington
- Metropolitan Borough of Poplar
- Metropolitan Borough of Shoreditch
- Metropolitan Borough of Southwark
- Metropolitan Borough of St Marylebone
- Metropolitan Borough of St Pancras
- Metropolitan Borough of Stepney
- Metropolitan Borough of Stoke Newington
- Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth
- Metropolitan Borough of Westminster
- Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich
In 1965 with the replacement of the London County Council with the Greater London Council the Metropolitan Boroughs were abolished and amalgamated into larger Boroughs. A number of road signs with the old borough names survive. A number of the town halls have been converted to other uses.
This article is licensed under the Wikipedia:Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article London County Council.
- Saint, A., Politics and the people of London: the London County Council (1889–1965), (1989)
- A central role for local government? The example of late Victorian Britain, Simon Szreter, History & Policy, May 2002
- Powers and Duties of the L.C.C., The Times: London County Council Jubilee Number, p.vi, 21 March 1939
- Old County Hall (including site of Berkeley House), Survey of London: volume 20: St Martin-in-the-Fields, pt III: Trafalgar Square & Neighbourhood
- Homes of the Council. Spring Gardens and County Hall, The Times, London County Council Jubilee Number p.vi, 21 March 1939
- The London County Council, The Times , pp.13–14, 15 July 1893
- Wikipedia article 
- Proposed London County Council Buildings, The Times, p.4, 28 June 1893
- Proposed New London County Hall, The Times p.3, 21 July 1902
- London County Hall, The Times, p.10, 22 October 1902
- London County Council. The New County Hall, The Times p.12, 19 April 1905
- London except the Cities of London and Westminster, Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England (1952) p.274
- Local Government Act 1888, S.40(4)
- 1948 c.65, s.59
- Politics and the People of London: The London County Council, 1889–1965, Andrew Saint, 1989, p.3
- The Coronation Honours, The Times , p.5, 26 June 1902
- London Gazette, issue 28589, 12 March 1912, p.1827
- L.C.C. Chairman Knighted, The Times, p.6, 7 July 1953
- Royal Guests of L.C.C. The Queen At The County Hall, Honour For Chairman, The Times, p.16 , 1 June 1935
- London Amalgamation – The Commissioners' Report, The Times, pp.13–14, 1 October 1894
- The London County Council Clerkship, The Times, p.5, 14 December 1895
- City of London
- School Board for London
- List of Chairmen of the London County Council
- Alphabetical list of leaders of the London County Council
- Coat of arms of London County Council
- London County Council Tramways
Information on the archives of the Education Committee here .
An article in The Guardian on the centenary of the LCC's foundation 
A list of LCC publications here .
- Colin Roy Anderson, London Government in Transition. LCC to GLC 1962-1967, dissertation University of Bedford 1996